TRANSPHORM: "Transport related Air Pollution and Health Impacts - Integrated Methodologies for Assessing Particulate Matter" (2011 - 2014)

Official website of the project:

Study objective:
TRANSPHORM aims to develop and implement an integrated methodology to assess the health impacts of particulate matter (PM) resulting from transport related air pollution covering the whole chain from emissions to disease burden.
The main objective was broken down into eleven key objectives (see

Specific objectives:
The Institute of Epidemiology is mainly involved in key objective (6):
To develop new concentration-response (CRF) or exposure-response functions (ERF) linking long- and short-term ambient residential exposure to size-resolved and speciated PM with key health endpoints.

Study design:
The TRANSPHORM project is organized in five scientific and technological subprojects (SP1-SP5) along with SP6 on Project Management and Dissemination. SPs represent a number of work packages (WP) which are further organized into specific tasks.

Within the framework of the TRANSPHORM project we performed spatially resolved measurements of elemental constituents of particulate matter, levoglucosan, PAH, hopanes/steranes and EC/OC concentrations at 40 monitoring sites in the region of Munich and Augsburg.

In addition, the Institute of Epidemiology takes part in SP3 (“Relationships between transport related PM and health”). This subproject is based on the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) and evaluates the health impacts of transport related emissions on pregnancy outcomes and childhood diseases, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as well as mortality and cancer incidence. Within this SP, we will develop source-specific concentration response functions suitable for application in health impact assessments. More specific we are involved in work packages WP3.3 (Cardiovascular Disease) and WP3.4 (Adult Mortality).

Study population:
Several cohort studies spread over Europe which also take part in ESCAPE. Helmholtz Zentrum München brings into TRANSPHORM the Augsburg adult cohort KORA (EPI II) and the Munich birth cohorts GINI and LISA (both EPI I).

Study area:
Fourteen European countries participate in TRANSPHORM, thereof cities and regions from Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK.

2011 - 2014.

Current status:

University of Hertfordshire, UK: Ranjeet S Sokhi (Project coordination)
Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS), Utrecht University, the Netherlands: Bert Brunekreef (Sub-project 3 coordination)
Partner Helmholtz Zentrum München:
Institute of Epidemiology I: Joachim Heinrich
Institute of Epidemiology II: Annette Peters, Josef Cyrys, Regina Hampel, Kathrin Wolf

Collaboration with 21 partners from 14 European countries.

EU: ENV.2009.

Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health
Institute of Epidemiology
Prof. Dr. Annette Peters

Selected publications:
(for the list of all TRANSPORM publications please look at the project website)

  • Long-term Exposure to Particulate Matter Constituents and the Incidence of Coronary Events in 11 European Cohorts.
    Wolf K, Stafoggia M, Cesaroni G, Andersen ZJ, Beelen R, Galassi C, Hennig F, Migliore E, Penell J, Ricceri F, Sørensen M, Turunen AW, Hampel R, Hoffmann B, Kälsch H, Laatikainen T, Pershagen G, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Sacerdote C, Vineis P, Badaloni C, Cyrys J, de Hoogh K, Eriksen KT, Jedynska A, Keuken M, Kooter I, Lanki T, Ranzi A, Sugiri D, Tsai MY, Wang M, Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Peters A, Forastiere F.
    Epidemiology. 2015 Jul;26(4):565-74. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000300.

  • Long-term effects of elemental composition of particulate matter on inflammatory blood markers in European cohorts.
    Hampel R, Peters A, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Cyrys J, de Faire U, de Hoogh K, Fuks K, Hoffmann B, Hüls A, Imboden M, Jedynska A, Kooter I, Koenig W, Künzli N, Leander K, Magnusson P, Männistö S, Penell J, Pershagen G, Phuleria H, Probst-Hensch N, Pundt N, Schaffner E, Schikowski T, Sugiri D, Tiittanen P, Tsai MY, Wang M, Wolf K, Lanki T; ESCAPE TRANSPHORM study groups. 
    Environ Int. 2015 Sep;82:76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2015.05.008. Epub 2015 Jun 9.

  • Spatial variations of levoglucosan in four European study areas.
    Jedynska, A., Hoek, G., Wang, M., Eeftens, M., Cyrys, J., Beelen, R., Cirach, M., De Nazelle, A. Keuken, M., Visschedijk, A., Nystad, W., Akhlaghi Makarem, H., Meliefste, K., Nieuwenhuijsen, M., de Hoogh, K., Brunekreef, B., Kooter, IM.
    Science of the Total Environment 2015, 505: 1072–1081.

  • Elemental composition of particulate matter and the association with lung function.
    Eeftens M, Hoek G, Gruzieva O, Mölter A, Agius R, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Custovic A, Cyrys J, Fuertes E, Heinrich J, Hoffmann B, de Hoogh K, Jedynska A, Keuken M, Klümper C, Kooter I, Krämer U, Korek M, Koppelman GH, Kuhlbusch TA, Simpson A, Smit HA, Tsai MY, Wang M, Wolf K, Pershagen G, Gehring U. 
    Epidemiology. 2014 Sep;25(5):648-57. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000136.

  • Long-term exposure to elemental constituents of particulate matter and cardiovascular mortality in 19 European cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.
    Wang M, Beelen R, Stafoggia M, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Hoffmann B, Fischer P, Houthuijs D, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Weinmayr G, Vineis P, Xun WW, Dimakopoulou K, Samoli E, Laatikainen T, Lanki T, Turunen AW, Oftedal B, Schwarze P, Aamodt G, Penell J, De Faire U, Korek M, Leander K, Pershagen G, Pedersen NL, Östenson CG, Fratiglioni L, Eriksen KT, Sørensen M, Tjønneland A, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Eeftens M, Bots ML, Meliefste K, Krämer U, Heinrich J, Sugiri D, Key T, de Hoogh K, Wolf K, Peters A, Cyrys J, Jaensch A, Concin H, Nagel G, Tsai MY, Phuleria H, Ineichen A, Künzli N, Probst-Hensch N, Schaffner E, Vilier A, Clavel-Chapelon F, Declerq C, Ricceri F, Sacerdote C, Marcon A, Galassi C, Migliore E, Ranzi A, Cesaroni G, Badaloni C, Forastiere F, Katsoulis M, Trichopoulou A, Keuken M, Jedynska A, Kooter IM, Kukkonen J, Sokhi RS, Brunekreef B, Katsouyanni K, Hoek G.
    Environ Int. 2014 May;66:97-106. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.01.026. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

  • Development of Land Use Regression Models for Elemental, Organic Carbon, PAH, and Hopanes/Steranes in 10 ESCAPE/TRANSPHORM European Study Areas.
    Jedynska A, Hoek G, Wang M, Eeftens M, Cyrys J, Keuken M, Ampe C, Beelen R, Cesaroni G, Forastiere F, Cirach M, de Hoogh K, De Nazelle A, Nystad W, Declercq C, Eriksen KT, Dimakopoulou K, Lanki T, Meliefste K, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Yli-Tuomi T, Raaschou-Nielsen O, Brunekreef B, Kooter IM.
    Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Nov 6. [Epub ahead of print]

  • Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies.
    de Hoogh K, Korek M, Vienneau D, Keuken M, Kukkonen J, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, Badaloni C, Beelen R, Bolignano A, Cesaroni G, Pradas MC, Cyrys J, Douros J, Eeftens M, Forastiere F, Forsberg B, Fuks K, Gehring U, Gryparis A, Gulliver J, Hansell AL, Hoffmann B, Johansson C, Jonkers S, Kangas L, Katsouyanni K, Künzli N, Lanki T, Memmesheimer M, Moussiopoulos N, Modig L, Pershagen G, Probst-Hensch N, Schindler C, Schikowski T, Sugiri D, Teixidó O, Tsai MY, Yli-Tuomi T, Brunekreef B, Hoek G, Bellander T.
    Environ Int. 2014 Dec;73:382-92. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.08.011. Epub 2014 Sep 16.

  • Spatial variations of PAH, hopanes/steranes and EC/OC concentrations within and between European study areas.
    Alexandra Jedynska, Rob Beelen, Tom Bellander, Matthias Birk, Giulia Cesaroni, Marta Cirach, Josef Cyrys, Kees de Hoogh, Christophe Declercq, Konstantina Dimakopoulou, Marloes Eeftens, Kirsten T Eriksen, Francesco Forastiere,Claudia Galassi, George Grivas, Joachim Heinrich, Barbara Hoffmann, Alex Ineichen, Michal Korek, Timo Lanki, Sarah Lindley, Lars Modig, Anna Mölter, Per Nafstad, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Wenche Nystad, David Olsson, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Martina Ragettli, Andrea Ranzi, Morgane Stempfelet, Dorothea Sugiri, Ming-Yi Tsai, Orsolya Udvardy, Mihaly J. Varró, Danielle Vienneau, Gudrun Weinmayr, Kathrin Wolf, Tarja Yli-Tuomi, Gerard Hoek, Bert Brunekreef.
    Atmospheric Environment 2014, 87, 239–248.

  • Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.
    Fuertes E, MacIntyre E, Agius R, Beelen R, Brunekreef B, Bucci S, Cesaroni G, Cirach M, Cyrys J, Forastiere F, Gehring U, Gruzieva O, Hoffmann B, Jedynska A, Keuken M, Klümper C, Kooter I, Korek M, Krämer U, Mölter A, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Pershagen G, Porta D, Postma DS, Simpson A, Smit HA, Sugiri D, Sunyer J, Wang M, Heinrich J.
    Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014 Nov;217(8):819-29. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2014.05.004. Epub 2014 May 29.

  • Aerosol-based modelling of infiltration of ambient PM2.5 and evaluation against population-based measurements in homes in Helsinki, Finland.
    Hänninen O, Sorjamaa R, Lipponen P, Cyrys J, Lanki T, Pekkanen J. 2013.
    Journal of Aerosol Science

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