Dr. Gabi Kastenmüller
Director (acting), Group Leader Metabolomics

Phone: +49 89 3187-3578
Fax: +49 89 3187-3585
Building/Room: 56/151

Member of Research Group: Metabolomics

Research Interests

  • Human chemical individuality and its effects in health, disease, and treatment
  • Metabolome-wide and genome-wide association studies
  • Bioinformatic tools and databases for metabolomics data analysis and data interpretation


today-2017Director (acting) of the Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology (IBIS), Helmholtz
Zentrum München
Honorary Lecturer in the Department of Twin Research, King's College London, UK
Group leader Metabolomics at the Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology (IBIS), Helmholtz Zentrum München
2010Visiting research fellow (May-Aug), Metabolon Inc., Durham, NC, USA

Postdoc at Karsten Suhre's lab, IBIS, Helmholtz Zentrum München
Ph.D. student at Genome-oriented Bioinformatics, Life and Food Science Center Weihenstephan, TUM
Research assistant at IBIS, Helmholtz Zentrum München
Research assistant at Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences (MIPS), Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry, Munich



2009Ph.D. in bioinformatics at the Technical University of Munich (TUM),
(German degree: Dr. rer. nat)
Thesis: "In silico prediction and comparison of metabolic capabilities in sequenced genomes"
1998Master in computer science at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU),
(German degree: Diplom-Informatikerin Univ.)
Thesis: "Similarity search in 3D protein databases" (in German)
1995Master in chemistry at the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich (LMU),
(German degree: Diplom-Chemiker Univ.)
Thesis: "Light-induced reorientation of azo dye containing, cholesteric oligosiloxanes" (in German)


Invited talks and honors

2017NIH Workshop "Chronic Inflammation", Rockville, USA
Seminars at EMBL-EBI, Hinxton, UK
Cambridge Metabolomics Forum, Cambridge, UK
2016ISN Forefronts Symposium 2016, The Metabolome and Microbiome in Kidney Disease, San Diego, USA
Minisymposium: Omics in Biomedicine, Oulu, Finland
201512th European Nutrition Conference FENS 2015, Berlin, Germany
ppsala Metabolomics Symposium, Uppsala, Sweden
2014The 14th International Gene Forum, Tartu, Estonia
57. SYMPOSIUM Deutsche Gesellschaft für Endokrinologie, Dresden, Germany
2013Conference on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, Chicago, USA
12th Annual AACR International Conference on Frontiers in Cancer Prevention Research, National Harbor, USA
HandsOn: Biobanks 2013, The Hague, Netherlands
2012Montreux Symposium on LC/MS, Switzerland
4th International Singapore Lipid Symposium, Singapore
2010Paula and Richard von Hertwig Award


Selected publications

For complete list of publications see here.

  • Do KT, Pietzner M, Rasp DJ, Friedrich N, Nauck M, Kocher T, Suhre K, Mook-Knamori DO,  Kastenmüller G, Krumsiek J. Phenotype-driven identification of modules in a hierarchical map of multifluid metabolic correlations. NPJ Syst Biol App., 3:28 (2017)
  • Quell JD, Römisch-Margl W, Colombo M, Krumsiek J, Evans AM, Mohney R, Salooma V, de Faire U, Groop LC, Agakov F, Looker HC, McKeigue P, Colhoun HM, Kastenmüller G. Automated pathway and reaction prediction facilitates in silicon identification of unknown metabolites in human cohort studies. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci., 1071:58-67. (2017)
  • Rueedi R, Mallol R, Raffler J, Lamparter D, Frierich N, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Kastenmüller G, Kutalik Z, Bergamnn S. Metabomatching: Using genetic association to identify metabolites in proton NMR spectroscopy. PLoS Comput Biol., 13(12):e1005339. (2017)
  • Toledo JB, Arnold M, Kastenmüller G, Chang R, Baille RA, Han X, Thambisetty M, Tenenbaum JD, Suhre K, Thompson JW, John-Williams LS, MahmoudianDehkordi S, Rotroff DM, Jack JR, Motsinger-Reif A, Risacher SL, Blach C, Lucas JE, Massaro T, Louie G, Zhu H, Dallmann G, Klavins K, Koal T, Kim S, Nho K, Shen L ,Casanova R, Varma S, Legido-Quigley C, Moseley A, Zhu K, Henrion MYR, van der Lee SJ, Harms AC, Demirkan A, Hankemeier T, van Duijn CM, Trojanowski JQ, Shaw LM, Saykin AJ, Weiner MW, Doraiswamy PM, Kaddurah-Daouk R. Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Alzheimer Disease Metabolomics Consortium. Metabolic network failures in Alzheimer's disease: A biochemical road map. Alzheimers Dement., 13(9):965-84. (2017)
  • Suhre K, Arnold M, Bhagwat AM, Cotton RJ, Engelke R, Raffler J, Sarwath H, Thareja G, Wahl A, DeLisle RK, Gold L, Pezer M, Lauf G, El-Din Selim MA, Mook-Kanamori DO, Al-Dous EK, Mohamoud YA, Malek J, Strauch K, Grallert H, Peters A, Kastenmüller G, Gieger C, Graumann J. Connecting genetic risk to disease end point through the human blood plasma proteome. Nat Commun., 8:14357. (2017)
  • Kremer LS, Bader DM, Mertes C, Kopajtich R, Pichler G, Iuso A, Haack TB, Graf E, Schwarzmayr T, Terrile C, Konarikova E, Repp B, Kastenmüller G, Adamski J, Lichtner P, Leonhardt C, Funalot B, Donati A, Tiranti V, Lombes A, Jardel C, Gläser D, Taylor RW, Ghezzi D, Mayr JA, Rötig A, Freisinger P , Distelmaier F, Strom TM, Meitinger T, Gagneur J, Prokicsch H. Genetic diagnosis of Mendelian disorders via RNA sequencing. Nat Commun. 8:15824. (2017)
  • Piontek U, Wallaschofski H, Kastenmüller G, Suhre K, Völzke H, Do KT, Artati A, Nauck M, Adamski J, Friedrich N, Pietzner M. Sex-specific metabolic profiles of androgens and its main binding protein SHBG in a middle aged population without diabetes. Sci Rep., 7(1):2235. (2017)
  • Menni C, Migaud M, Kastenmüller G, Pallister T, Zierer J, Peters A, Mohney RP, Spector TD, Bagnardi V, Gieger C, Moore SC, Valdes AM. Metabolomics Profiling of Long-Term Weight Change: Role of Oxidative Stress and Urate Levels in Weight Gain. Obesity, 25(9):1618-24. (2017)
  • Zierer J, Pallister T, Tsai PC, Krumsiek J, Bell JT, Lauc G, Spector TD, Menni C, Kastenmüller G. Exploring the molecular basis of age-related disease comorbidities using a multi-omits graphical model. Sci Rep., 6:37646. (2016)
  • Suhre K, Raffler J, Kastenmüller G. Biochemical insights from population studies with genetics and metabolomics. Arch Biochem Biophys, 589:168-76. (2016)
  • Sekula P, Goek ON, Quaye L, Barrios C, Levey AS, Römisch-Margl W, Menni C, Yet I, Gieger C, Inker LA, Adamski J, Gronwald W, Illig T, Dettmer K, Krumsiek J, Oefner PJ, Valdes AM, Meisinger C, Coresh J, Spector TD, Mohney RP, Suhre K, Kastenmüller G, Köttgen A. A Metabolome-Wide Association Study of Kidney Function and Disease in the General Population .  J Am Soc Nephrol., 27(4):1175-88. (2016)
  • Beger RD, Dunn W, Schmidt MA, Gross SS, Kirwan JA, Cascante M, Brennan L, Wishart DS, Oresic M, Hankemeier T, Broadhurst DI, Lane AN, Suhre K, Kastenmüller G, Sumner SJ, Thiele I, Fiehn O, Kaddurah-Daouk R; for "Precision Medicine and Pharmacometabolomics Task Group"- Metabolomics Society Initiative. Metabolomics enables precision medicine: "A White Paper, Community Perspective". Metabolomics, 12(10):149. (2016)
  • Lacruz ME, Kluttig A, Tiller D, Medenwald D, Giegling I, Rujescu D, Prehn C, Adamski J, Frantz S, Greiser KH, Emeny RT, Kastenmüller G. Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated With Blood Metabolites Conentrations and Their Alterations During a 4-Year Period in a Population-Based Cohort. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. (2016)
  • Adam J, Brandmaier S, Leonhardt J, Scheerer MF, Money RP, Xu T, Bi J, Rotter M, Troll M, Chi S, Heier M, Herder C, Rathmann W, Giani G, Adamski J, Illig T, Strauch K, Li Y, Gieger C, Peters A, Suhre K, Ankerst D, Meitinger T, Hrabe de Angelis M, Roden M, Neschen S, Kastenmüller G, Wang-Sattler R. Metformin Effect on Nontargeted Metabolite Profiles in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and in Multiple Murine Tissues. Diabetes, 65(12):3776-85. (2016)
  • Halama A, Horsch M, Kastenmüller G, Möller G, Kumar P, Prehn C, Laumern H, Hauner H, Hrabe de Angelis M, Beckers J, Suhre K, Adamski J. Metabolic switch during adipogenesis: From branched chain amino acid catabolism to lipid synthesis. Arch Biochem Biophys., 589:93-107. (2016)
  • Raffler J, Friedrich N, Arnold M, Kacprowski T, Rueedi R, Altmaier E, Bergamnn S, Budde K, Gieger C, Homuth G, Pietzner M, Römisch-Margl W, Strauch K, Völzke H, Waldenberger M, Wallaschofski H, Nauck M, Völker U,  Kastenmüller G, Suhre K. Genome-Wide Association Study with Targeted and Non-targeted NMR Metabolomics Identifies 15 Novel Loci of Uirnary Human Metabolic Individuality. PLoS Genet., 11(9):e1005487. (2015)
  • Krumsiek J, Mittelstrass K, Do KT, Stückler F, Ried J, Adamski J, Peters A, Illig T, Kronenberg F, Friedrich N, Nauck M, Pietzner M, Mook-Kanamori DO, Suhre K, Geiger C, Gallert H, Theis FJ, Kastenmüller G. Gender-specific pathway differences in the human serum metabolome. Metabolomics, 11(6):1815-33. (2015)
  • Zierer J, Menni C, Kastenmüller G, Spector TD. Integration of 'omics' data in aging research: from biomarkers to systems biology. Aging Cell, 14(6):933-44. (2015)
  • Kastenmüller G, Raffler J, Gieger C, Suhre K. Genetics of human metabolism: an update. Hum Mol Genet., 24(R1):R93-R101. (2015)
  • Bartel J, Krumsiek J, Schramm K, Adamski J, Gieger C, Herder C, Carstensen M, Peters A, Rathmann W, Roden M, Strauch K, Suhre K, Kastenmüller G, Prokisch H, Theis FJ. The Human Blood Metabolome-Transcriptome Interface. PLoS Genet., 11(6):e1005274. (2015)
  • Yousri NA, Mook-Kanamori DO, Selim MM, Takiddin AH, Al-Homsi H, Al-Mahmoud KA, Karoly ED, Krumsiek J, Do KT, Neumaier U, Mook-Kanamori MJ, Rowe J, Chidiac OM, McKeon C, Al Muftah WA, Kader SA, Kastenmüller G, Suhre K. A systems view of type 2 diabetes-associated metabolic perturbations in saliva, blood and urine at different timescales of glycaemic control. Diabetologia, 58(8):1855-67. (2015)
  • Livshits G, Macgregor AJ, Gieger C, Malkin I, Moayyeri A, Gallert H, Emeny RT, Spector T, Kastenmüller G, Williams FM. An omics investigation into chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain reveals epiandrosterone sulfate as a potential biomarker. Pain, 156(10):1845-51. (2015)
  • Wahl S, Vogt S, Stückler F, Krumsiek J, Bartel J, Kacprowski T, Schramm K, Carstensen M, Rathmann W, Roden M, Jourdan C, Kangas AJ, Soininen P, Ala-Korpela M, Nöthlings U, Boeing H, Theis FJ, Meisinger C, Waldenberger M, Suhre K, Homuth G, Gieger C, Kastenmüller G, Illig T, Linseisen J, Peters A, Prokisch H, Herder C, Thorand B, Grallert H. Multi-omic signature of body weight change: results from a population-based cohort study. BMC Medicine, 13:48. (2015)
  • Anton G, Wilson R, Yu ZH, Prehn C, Zukunft S, Adamski J, Heier M, Meisinger C, Römisch-Margl W, Wang-Sattler R, Hveem K, Wolfenbuttel B, Peters A, Kastenmüller G, Waldenberger M. Pre-analytical sample quality: metabolite ratios as an intrinsic marker for prolonged room temperature exposure of serum samples. PLoS One, 10(3):e0121495. (2015)
  • Do KT, Kastenmüller G, Mook-Kanamori DO, Yousri NA, Theis FJ, Suhre K, Krumsiek J. Network-based approach for analyzing inter- and intrafluid metabolite associations in human blood, urine, and saliva. J. Proteome Res., 14(2):1183-94. (2015)
  • Arnold M, Raffler J, Pfeufer A, Suhre K, Kastenmüller G. SNiPA: an interactive, genetic variant-centered annotation browser. Bioinformatics, 31(8):1334-6. (2015)
  • Shin SY, Fauman E, Petersen AK, Krumsiek J, Santos R, Huang J, Arnold M, Erte I, Forgetta V, Yang TP, Walter K, Menni C, Chen L, Vasquez L, Valdes AM, Hyde CL, Wang V, Ziemek D, Roberts P, Xi L, Grundberg E, The Multiple Tissue Human Expression Resource (MuTHER) Consortium, Waldenberger M, Richards JB, Mohney RP, Milburn MV, John SL, Trimmer J, Theis FJ, Overington JP, Suhre K, Brosnan J, Gieger C, Kastenmüller G, Spector TD, Soranzo N. An atlas of genetic influences on human blood metabolites. Nature Genet., 46(6):543-550. (2014)
  • Yousri, N., Kastenmüller, G., Gieger, C., Shin, S.-Y., Erte, I., Menni, C., Peters, A., Meisinger, C., Mohney, R.P., Illig, T., Adamski, J., Soranzo, N., Spector, T.D., Suhre, K. Long term conservation of human metabolic phenotypes and link to heritability. Metabolomics, 10(5):1005-17. (2014)
  • Altmaier E, Fobo G, Heier M, Thorand B, Meisinger C, Römisch-Margl W, Waldenberger M, Gieger C, Illig T, Adamski J, Suhre K, Kastenmüller G. Metabolomics approach reveals effects of antihypertensives and lipid-lowering drugs on the human metabolism. Eur J Epidemiol., 29(5):325-36. (2014)
  • Schramm K, Marzi C, Schurmann C, Carstensen M, Reinmaa E, Biffar R, Eckstein G, Gieger C, Grabe HJ, Homuth G, Kastenmüller G, Mägi R, Metspalu A, Mihailov E, Peters A, Petersmann A, Roden M, Strauch K, Suhre K, Teumer A, Völker U, Völzke H, Wang-Sattler R, Waldenberger M, Meitinger T, Illig T, Herder C, Grallert H, Prokisch H. Mapping the genetic architecture of gene regulation in whole blood. PLoS One, 9(4):e93844. (2014)
  • Petersen AK, Zeilinger S, Kastenmüller G, Römisch-Margl W, Brugger M, Peters A, Meisinger C, Strauch K, Hengstenberg C, Pagel P, Huber F, Mohney RP, Grallert H, Illig T, Adamski J, Waldenberger M, Gieger C, Suhre K. Epigenetics meets metabolomics: An epigenome-wide association study with blood serum metabolic traits. Hum Mol Genet., 23(2):534-45. (2014)
  • Then C, Wahl S, Kirchhofer A, Grallert H, Krug S, Kastenmüller G, Römisch-Margl W, Claussnitzer M, Illig T, Heier M, Meisinger C, Adamski J, Thorand B, Huth C, Peters A, Prehn C, Heukamp I, Laumen H, Lechner A, Hauner H, Seissler J. Plasma metabolomics reveal alterations of sphingo- and glycerophospholipid levels in non-diabetic carriers of the transcription factor 7-like 2 polymorphism rs7903146. PLoS One, 8(10):e78430. (2013)
  • Menni C, Fauman E, Erte I Perry JR, Kastenmüller G, Shin SY, Petersen AK, Hyde C, Psatha M, Ward KJ, Yuan W, Milburn M, Palmer CN, Frayling TM, Trimmer J, Bell JT, Gieger C, Mohney RP, Brosnan MJ, Suhre K, Soranzo N, Spector TD. Biomarkers for type2 diabetes and impaired fasting glucose using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Diabetes, 62(12):4270-6. (2013)
  • Menni C, Kastenmüller G, Petersen AK, Bell JT, Psatha M, Tsai PC, Gieger C, Schulz H, Erte I, John S, Brosnan MJ, Wilson SG, Tsaprouni L, Lim EM, Stuckey B, Deloukas P, Mohney R, Suhre K, Spector TD, Valdes AM. Metabolomic markers reveal novel pathways of ageing and early development in human populations. Int J Epidemiol., 42(4):1111-9. (2013)
  • Ferrannini E, Natalai A, Camastra S, Nannipieri M, Mari A, Adam KP, Milburn MV, Kastenmüller G, Adamski J, Tuomi T, Lyssenko V, Groop L, Gall WE. Early metabolic markers of the development of dysglycemia and type 2 diabetes and their physiological significance. Diabetes, 62(5):1730-7. (2013)
  • Raffler J, Römisch-Margl W, Petersen AK, Pagel P, Blochl F, Hengstenberg C, Illig T, Meisinger C, Stark K, Wichmann HE, Adamski J, Gieger C, Kastenmüller G, Suhre K. Identification and MS assisted interpretation of genetically influenced NMR signals in human plasma. Genome Med., 5(2):13. (2013)
  • Altmaier E, Emeny RT, Krumsiek J, Lacruz ME, Lukaschek K, Häfner S, Kastenmüller G, Römisch-Margl W, Prehn C, Mohney RP, Evans AM, Milburn MV, Illig T, Adamski J, Theis F, Suhre K, Ladwig KH. Metabolomic profiles in individuals with negative affectivity and social inhibition: A population-based study of Type D personality. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38(8):1299-309. (2013)
  • Krumsiek J, Suhre K, Evans AM, Mitchell MW, Mohney RP, Milburn MV, Wägele B, Römisch-Margl W, Illig T, Adamski J, Gieger C, Theis FJ, Kastenmüller G. Mining the unknown: a systems approach to metabolite identification combining genetic and metabolic information. PLoS Genet., 8(10):e1003005. (2012)
  • Lechner M, Höhn V, Brauner B, Dunger I, Fobo G, Frishman G, Montrone C, Kastenmüller G, Wägele B, Ruepp A. CIDeR: multifactorial interaction networks in human diseases. Genome Biol., 13(7):R62. (2012)
  • Krug S, Kastenmüller G, Stückler F, Rist MJ., Skurk T, Sailer M, Raffler J, Römisch-Margl W, Adamski J, Prehn C, Frank T, Engel KH, Hofmann T, Luy B, Zimmermann R, Moritz F, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Krumsiek J, Kremer W, Huber F, Oeh U, Theis FJ, Szymczak W, Hauner H, Suhre K, Daniel H. The dynamic range of the human metabolome revealed by challenges. FASEB J., 26(6):2607-19. (2012)
  • Petersen AK, Stark K, Musameh MD, Nelson CP, Römisch-Margl W, Kremer W, Raffler J, Krug S, Skurk T, Rist MJ, Daniel H, Hauner H, Adamski J, Tomaszewski M, Döring A, Peters A, Wichmann HE, Kaess BM, Kalbitzer HR, Huber F, Pfahlert V, Samani NJ, Kronenberg F, Dieplinger H, Illig T, Hengstenberg C, Suhre K, Gieger C, Kastenmüller G. Genetic associations with lipoprotein subfractions provide information on their biological nature. Hum Mol Genet., 21(6):1433-43. (2012)
  • Suhre K, Shin SY, Petersen AK, Mohney RP, Meredith D, Wägele B, Altmaier E, CARDIoGRAM, Deloukas P, Erdmann J, Grundberg E, Hammond CJ, de Angelis MH, Kastenmüller G, Köttgen A, Kronenberg F, Mangino M, Meisinger C, Meitinger T, Mewes HW, Milburn MV, Prehn C, Raffler J, Ried JS, Römisch-Margl W, Samani NJ, Small KS, Wichmann HE, Zhai G, Illig T, Spector TD, Adamski J, Soranzo N, Gieger C. Human metabolic individuality in biomedical and pharmaceutical research. Nature, 477(7362):54-60. (2011)
  • Yu Z, Kastenmüller G, He Y, Belcredi P, Möller G, Prehn C, Mendes J, Wahl S, Roemisch-Margl W, Ceglarek U, Polonikov A, Dahmen N, Prokisch H, Xie L, Li Y, Wichmann HE, Peters A, Kronenberg F, Suhre K, Adamski J, Illig T, Wang-Sattler R. Differences between human plasma and serum metabolite profiles. PLoS One, 6(7):e21230. (2011) 
  • Kastenmüller G, Römisch-Margl W, Wägele B, Altmaier E, Suhre K. metaP-Server: a web-based metabolomics data analysis tool. J Biomed Biotechnol., pii:839862. (2011) 
  • Altmaier E, Kastenmüller G, Römisch-Margl W, Thorand B, Weinberger KM, Illig T, Adamski J, Döring A, Suhre K. Questionnaire-based self-reported nutrition habits associate with serum metabolism as revealed by quantitative targeted metabolomics. Eur J Epidemiol., 26(2):145-56. (2011)
  • Illig T, Gieger C, Zhai G, Römisch-Margl W, Wang-Sattler R, Prehn C, Altmaier E, Kastenmüller G, Kato BS, Mewes HW, Meitinger T, Hrabé de Angelis M, Kronenberg F, Soranzo N , Wichmann HE, Spector TD, Adamski J, Suhre K. A genome-wide perspective of genetic variation in human metabolism. Nature Genet., 42:137-141. (2010) 
  • Altmaier E, Kastenmüller G, Römisch-Margl W, Thorand B, Weinberger KM, Adamski J, Illig T, Döring A, Suhre K. Variation in the human lipide associated with coffee consumption as revealed by quantitative targeted metabolomics. Mol Nutr Food Res., 53:1357-1365. (2009)
  • Walter MC, Rattei T, Arnold R, Güldener U, Münsterkötter M, Nenova K, Kastenmüller G, Tischler P, Wölling A, Volz A, Pongratz N, Jost R, Mewes HW, Frishman D. PEDANT covers all complete RefSeq genomes. Nucleic Acids Res., 37:D408-11. (2009)
  • Kastenmüller G, Schenk ME, Gasteiger J, Mewes HW. Uncovering metabolic pathways relevant to phenotypic traits of microbial genomes. Genome Biol., 10(3):R28. (2009)
  • Kastenmüller G, Gasteiger J, Mewes HW. An environmental perspective on large-scale genome clustering based on metabolic capabilities. Bioinformatics, 24(16):i56-62. (2008)
  • Güldener U, Münsterkötter M, Kastenmüller G, Strack N, van Helden J, Lemer C, Richelles J, Wodak SJ, Garcia-Martinez J, Perez-Ortin JE, Michael H, Kaps A, Talla E, Dujon B, Andre B. CYGD: the Comprehensive Yeast Genome Database. Nucleic Acids Res, 33:D364-68. (2005)
  • Ankerst M, Kastenmüller G, Kriegel HP, Seidl T. Nearest Neighbor Classification in 3D Protein Databases. Proc. of the 7th Int. Conf. on Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), Heidelberg, Germany. AAAI Press, pp. 34-43. (1999).
  • Ankerst M, Kastenmüller G, Kriegel HP, Seidl T. 3D Shape Histograms for Similarity Search and Classification in Spatial Databases. Proc. of the 6th Int. Symposium on Spatial Databases (SSD), Hong Kong, China. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), 1651:207-26. (1999)
  • Kastenmüller G, Kriegel HP, Seidl T. Similarity Search in 3D Protein Databases. Proc. of the 6th German Conf. on Bioinformatics (GCB), Cologne, Germany. (1998)
  • Dietrich R, Kastenmüller G, Bourhill G, Bräuchle C, Leigeber HP, Weitzel HP, Kreutzer FH. Generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline structures. Ber Bunsenges Phys Chem., 100:1128. (1996)