Epigenome Profiling Unveils Cell-Type-Specific Gene Regulatory Programs in Human Cortical Organoids
Scientists from the Bonev Lab at the PioneerCampus at Helmholtz Munich present 3DRAM-seq, a revolutionary technique that maps spatial genome organization, chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and gene expression - all at once.
Understanding Cell Fate Decisions
Cell fate decisions, critical in development and disease, rely on intricate regulatory networks controlled by epigenetic mechanisms. However, until now, limitations in multi-omic methods have hindered the comprehensive mapping of these crucial gene regulatory processes.
In a pioneering study published in Nature Cell Biology, a team led by PioneerCampus PI Dr. Boyan Bonev in collaboration with the Albert group from the Center for Regenerative Therapies Dresden (CRTD) at TUD Dresden University of Technology has introduced a novel multi-omic method, 3DRAM-seq, enabling comprehensive interrogation of multiple epigenetic layers at unprecedented resolution.
3DRAM-seq combines assessment of spatial genome organization with chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation profiling, and gene expression analysis. This cutting-edge technique now allows for mapping cell-type-specific regulatory landscapes in human neural development across multiple epigenetic layers.
By using 3DRAM-seq on cortical organoids, the authors mapped important cis-regulatory regions of the human genome and identified cell type-specific gene-regulatory networks. 3DRAM-seq (i) enables multimodal analysis that allows for concurrent, accurate measurements of chromatin accessibility, DNA methylation, and 3D genome organization – thus, providing a comprehensive view of the complex epigenetic landscape; (ii) uncovered cell type-specific regulatory dynamics by identifying dynamic changes in regulatory elements and associated transcription factors during the transition from radial glia cells to intermediate progenitor cells and (iii) provided insights into enhancer function based on a thorough analysis of cell-type-specific enhancer activities and the identification of key transcription factors governing this specificity.
Potential Implications and Future Directions
The development of 3DRAM-seq and its successful application in human cortical organoids signify a major leap forward in our ability to understand cell fate determination and disease mechanisms at an unprecedented level of detail. This breakthrough technique holds promise for Advancing Precision Medicine as it may aid in identifying novel therapeutic targets for neurological disorders; Unraveling Developmental Processes by contributing to a deeper understanding of human brain development and associated disorders and Fostering Future Research as 3DRAM-seq allows to study rare cell types and diverse tissues, opening doors for broad applications across various fields of biology and medicine.
In summary, 3DRAM-seq marks a significant stride in decoding the complexities of gene regulation during human brain development. It holds tremendous promise for both advancing our fundamental understanding of biology and paving the way for innovative therapeutic interventions in neurodevelopmental disorders.
News atapted from Helmholtz Pioneer Campus.
Noack et. al. (2023): Joint epigenome profiling reveals cell-type-specific gene regulatory programmes in human cortical organoids. Nature Cell Biology. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-023-01296-5